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文化的绘画性思考

时间:2010-12-18 10:23 来源:上上国际美术馆 TAG标签: 王笑今 绘画性思考 点击:

    是从作品说起还是从作品要反映的内容说起,这个很难,又似乎无关紧要。这批作品的初衷,本是为了从另一个角度去诠释这些人物,在完成了三张以后,放置了近一年的时间,没有再画。原因是,我慢慢发现,这种对古人的从新诠释,很久以前就被无数人诠释过了,似乎已无路可走。于是,在接下来将近一年的时间里,我的绘画接近死亡, 画了无数张后来被自己毁掉的作品。来北京最大的收获,就是在绘画里让我知道了痛苦,这种痛苦不比在山东,山东的痛是感性的,北京的痛是理性的,我不知道自己能否置之死地而后生,因为,很多人置之死地就他妈死了。一年里,这三张作品天天在我眼前晃来晃去,飘来飘去,直到有一天,在她们面前,我也好像突然顿悟,才有了现在这十几张作品。

(It is a difficult task to decide whether to begin with my work or with the content of my work. Perhaps this is irrelevant after all. The original aim of this series of work was to find a new perspective to interpret these historical figures. But, after finishing only three pieces, I stopped. The reason was that I noticed very soon that reinterpreting these figures has already been done many times by other people. In the following one year, my painting came to a dead end and many painting were destroyed by myself. The biggest gain was that I learnt the anguish from from my drawings since settleing in Beijing. I felt similar anguish before when I lived in Shandong, but the difference is that the anguish in Shandong was emotional but this one in Beijing was rational. I was not sure whether I would be able resurrect from this anguish, because for many artists this is simply the end. During the one year, the three paintings had been trying to tantalizing me. Until one day, I got a sudden enligtenment and continue on to complete the dozen paintings in the present form.)

    多年以来,我一直迷恋于绘画本身,对通过双手表现人物的质感、形体、神情等等,情有独钟。看到表现的好的绘画语言,心里就非常惊喜,以致于延伸到喜欢照片。从最早我接触绘画时就有这种写实情节。初二那年春节,曾把蒙娜丽莎用铅笔临摹一遍,挂到墙上当年画。直到现在,我对梵高、马蒂斯等,还是能理解但是不喜欢,但对卡拉瓦乔、伦勃朗直到当下的巴尔蒂斯、里希特,却是喜爱之极。
(For many years, I have been obsessed with painting itself, and have been so fond of expressing figures’ texture, shape and look through my hands. I felt pleasantly surprised when seeing the wonder painting as a language, which extended to my fondness of photo pictures. I was accustomed to realism when I learnt painting in the early days. When I was in Junior School, I copied Mona Lisa with a pencil and hung on the wall as the New Year’s painting. Until now, I can understand but do not like Van Gogh and Matisse. But I am extremely fond of Caravaggio, Rembrandt,Balthus and Richter.)
   但不知道为什么,对写实绘画的反面,抽象绘画,却推崇备至,自己也觉得奇怪。艺术发展到当下,传统的以写实为目地的绘画早已落入非物质遗产一样的境地,纯写实绘画固然有人在坚守,要么是个人喜好,要么是不知道或不愿去知道绘画在当下的意义,“我们不是伦勃朗的时代了,不可能再像伦勃朗那样去画人”(洛佩斯)。这样,问题就有了,我们该怎么办,我们该画什么、怎么画。其实,这个问题当代人已经解决得很好,如洛佩斯对绘画语言的探讨,里希特对观念的探讨,都赋予写实绘画以新的、时代的文化意义。
(I do not know why I value abstract painting, which is the opposite of realistic painting. Until arts developing nowdays, traditional  realistic painting was classified as an intangible heritage. Some artists stick to pure realistic painting because of their personal preference, or because they do not know the significance of painting in the present. “We are not in the time of Rembrandt, we can no longer paint as Rembrandt” (Lopez). Thus, the problem has risen—what to draw and how to paint. Actually, contemporary artists have solved this problem very well, such as Lopez’s research on the language of painting and Richter on the concept, they all give the cultural significance to realistic painting.)

    我现在所进行的这些写实绘画,如大家所看到的,我的想法是,首先抛开你要表现的东西,抛开观念,先要画出一张好作品,不管画的是什么,功夫,语言要到位。其次,要用你过硬的功底去表现你的想法,表达你的观念。这样才过瘾,才能对你要表达的内容有表达的深度。所以,我由最初的想重新诠释古人,到现在的中外人物的嫁接,使他们进行对话,就是基于这样的一种想法。其实想来,画到现在这个样子,并没有背离我最初的想法,我们也可以理解为重新诠释这些人物,不过是用了一种观念性的方式去诠释而已。  通过绘画的形式,使人们对中西文化再次产生思考,或者叫做“文化的绘画性思考”,是我画这些作品的目地。        
(My ideas of realistic paintings is that, first of all, just do a piece of good work and set aside the theme---so the skills of painting must be excellent, secondly, express the theme through your excellent skills. Only through this way, I can quickly express the depth of the theme. My original intention of “grafting” the ancient Chinese and foreign figures for their dialogue is based on this idea. In fact, my current paintings do not deviate from my original thoughts. I simply reinterpret these figures through the conceptual approach. Through the way of painting, People can rethink Chinese and Western cultures (or “pondering on culture’s paintability”), is the purpose of my this series.)

   先秦诸子百家和古希腊的哲学家们,几乎在同时对东西方文化进行启蒙,在古典文明的起源期,虽然在源头上有很多相似之处,但其实更大的是思维方式的不同,我不懂哲学,也无意在我的作品里对哲学问题进行深入的探讨,我仅根据现有的知识水平,对中西方哲学,做些表面的粗糙的理解,甚至于连理解都谈不上,仅是感性的认识而已。    对中西方文化的比较和研究,尤以中国为盛,究其原因,可能是西方多数人觉得没有必要,就像我们中国人觉得,没有必要研究中国和南非、巴西的文化同异,道理应该是一样的。但对于我们,这种研究是有意义的,我们的文化发展步伐缓慢、滞后,除王阳明和他之前,以儒家为代表的传统思想,通过自身强大的理论体系,还可以和西方哲学进行平等的交流和对话外,进入近现代,哲学的发展日渐衰落,不要说对话,甚至都没有稍成体系的思想理论!所谓的近代思想启蒙,无非是把西方的近现代思想,介绍到中国,告诉给不知道的人。我们近现代,哪儿还有为这个世界贡献新的价值观、世界观、新的思想的人!(我作品里所反映的思想家,止于李贽)所以,对文化自身的反省,给思想注入新的血液,使其苏醒,从而再次进入蓬勃发展的轨道,有其现实的意义.
(Pre-Qin Dynasty and ancient Greek philosophers, in almost the same time, enlighted the Eastern and Western culture. In the origins of civilization in classical period, although there were many similarities in the source, there are more differences in the mode of thinking. I have no intention in my paintings to make deep philosophical discussion. Based on the knowledge I have, I only possess a rough understanding of Chinese and Western philosophy, or only emotional cognition of it. Comparison and research of Chinese and Western Culture is particularly prevalent in China. The reason may be that most Westerners do not regard the comparison and research is necessary, as we Chinese people feel no need to study the cultural similarities and differences of Chinese, South African and Brazilian. But for we Chinese people, this research is meaningful, because our contemporary culture develops slowly. Only the traditional thoughts represented by Confucianism can exchange and dialogue with Western philosophy equally. Into modern times, the development of Chinese philosophy lags behind and there is nearly no integral ideological and theoretical system. Modernism Enlightenment is introducing modern Western thought to China and to the people who do not know it . In our modern times, we contributed nearly no new values, new world views and new ideas to this world! Therefore, cultural self-reflection, adding new thoughts and re-entering the booming track, has its practical significance.)

    中国哲学自然以儒家为主,但老庄和佛家对他进行的即对抗又补充的发展,也起了不能忽视的作用。儒家思想每一次大的变革,无不在吸收其他各流派的长处,以促进自身适应时代变化的需要,从而进入新的历史时期。但这种吸收,仅限于对本国自身的其他学说和流派。我们不像古希腊先哲,地处地中海,既有巴比伦文明也有埃及文明对他进行调和补充,伴随着地中海各国之间的贸易和战争,使希腊文明不仅具有先秦诸子对人和社会,自然的思考,还产生了纯思辨和对逻辑本身的研究,从而使物理学、数学、心理学,等从哲学里分离出去而自成体系,并为近现代文明的飞速发展提供了理性依据。反观我们的哲学,从先秦诸子到近代思想启蒙,一直围绕着“人”这个主题展开,探讨的是人自身的修养和发展,以及人与社会、人与自然、人与人之间关系的和谐共存。在思想发展中,也有外来文化对以儒家为代表中华文化进行交流和对话,但这种交流因外来文化自身的弱小,所以无法和中华文明相抗衡,他们在和儒家文化接触之后,基本上都被同化吸收了。还有,随着科学技术水平的进步,也使大量的科技成果转化成理论,被运用到思想里,但也仅仅是为学术本身提供一些佐证,并没有为科学的进一步发展提供合适的理论。   
(Confucianism dominated Chinese philosophy, but Taoist and Buddhist added the development of Confucianism, also played an important role that can not be ignored. Every major changes of Confucianism absorbed the strengths of other schools to adapt the changing needs of the times, which entered a new historical period. But the so-called “ absorbing”only restricted our own other theories and schools. Different from us, located in the Mediterranean, the ancient Greece philosophers were added by Babylonian civilization and Egyptian civilization.  With trade and war between Mediterranean countries, Greece civilization produced not only the thoughts for people, society and nature(the same as the Pre-Qin philosophers of ancient China), but also a pure reasoning and logic of their own research. So that physics, mathematics and psychology could separate from philosophy and provide rational basis for the development of peoples’ modern civilization.  From Pre-Qin philosophy to the modernism enlightenment, our Chinese philosophy had been around the “human” theme, which discussing people’s own accomplishment and development, harmony in interpersonal relationships, man and nature, people and society. In intellectual development, there were also foreign cultures exchanging and dialoguing with Chinese culture represented by Confucianism. But this kind of exchange could not compete with Chinese civilization because of the weakness of foreign cultures. Thus, they had been largely assimilated and absorbed by Confucianism. Besides, with the progress of science and technology, a large number of scientific and technological achievements converted to theories and applied in thoughts, but they were only some supports for academic, and could not provide theories for further development of the science.)

   所以,第一,我用了写实的方式。当代艺术有去绘画性一说,其实,靠去绘画性来使绘画进入当代,毕竟有失偏颇,因为,重要的是表现形式和表现内容的当代,而不仅仅是一种样式上的简单更新。如毛焰.刘炜的绘画性极强的作品,周铁海对古典写实的借用。国外如里希特借用照片一样的写实对瞬间的记录。所以,写实绘画本身没有走向消亡,消亡的是为写实而写实没有时代精神的死画。选择写实,是我对所要表达内容的一种不得不采取的方式,如果换另外一种表现方式,就会歪曲我的想法。这种借助观念而产生的“非具体的人”,一定要借助一个具体的形象,才能完成对一个“具体的人”(嫁接的)的阐释,从而,才能有效的呈现我要表达的内容。        
( So, first, I use the realistic way. The contemporary art have the argument of “painting”, but actually, it is impossible to enter the contemporary times depending on the “painting”. The reason is, the most important are the contemporary manifestations and themes, instead of the simple style update. Such as the highly painting works of Mao Yan and Liu Wei, as well as Zhou Tie Hai’s reference of chassical realism. Foreign companies, such as photo realistic Richter, borrowed the records of the moment. Therefore, realistic painting does not have to die, dying is the realistic paintings out of spirit of the times. The choice of realism is to express the theme, which I have had to take an approach. If for anther expression, it will distort my thoughts. The arise with the concept of “non-specific” must rely on a specific image, to compete the interpretation of a “specific person” (grafting), thus, can effectively present what I want to say.)
   第二,我在严肃思考。不想戏娱,这种对不同人物的嫁接,进人当代后,很多人趋之若鹜 ,戏娱玩笑、为嫁接而嫁接、为当代而当代。当然,沿着这条路走下去可能会有另外一种收获,但我不想,我是很严肃的在思考他们的同异,凡是对话的人物在思想上一定有相碰撞之处,在历史位置上一定起大体相同的作用,从而才能起到两种文化的对话、对比、交流和思考的作用。而不是简单的把张三的头安在李四身上。
(Second, I am seriously thinking. I do not want to play entertaining with the “grafting” of the different figures. Into the modern times, most people rush, play fun entertainment for “grafting”. But during this way, there may be another harvest. I have been seriously thinking the differences and similarities of them. Any Chinese and Western characters in the dialogues must have the same points and had played important roles in their history. Through this way, people can think and contrast the two cultures. Thus, this “grafting” is not simply transplanting one’s head to the other’s body. )

   如我对孔子的创作。在西方,没有哪个人的思想,能影响、左右一个国家两千多年的历史,这是中国独有的。为此,我用了两个人去表现他,一个是苏格拉底,苏格拉底在古希腊时期所起的作用,和孔子如出一辙,他使希腊哲学从研究自然回归到研究伦理,在希腊有前苏格拉底时期和后苏格拉底时期之分,在希腊哲学史上有划时代的意义,正如孔子在中国的作用。他的继承者柏拉图和亚里斯多德,犹如中国的孟子与董仲舒,又分别在不同的时代,起了历史的导师作用。另一个是马克思,马克思和孔子,我觉得都是蛮理想主义的,都想构建一个理想的社会秩序,他们的学说都对中国的社会、对人,产生了巨大的影响。当然,由于孔子的地位过于特殊,不得不用两个人去表现他。所以,我这批作品,将以孔子的苏格拉底开头,又将以孔子的马克思收尾。还有文学巨擘,如曹雪芹与莎士比亚,他们的历史地位相似,文学成就相似,并都对后世产生了宗师一般的影响。       
(Take my painting of Confucius for example. In the West, no one can influence a country for about two thousand years. This is unique in China. So, I use two persons to show him, one is Socrates. Socrates played an important role in ancient Greece, the same as Confucius in ancient China. Socrates made the Greek philosophy from studying nature to researching ethics. The ancient Greek philosophy which divided by Pre-Socratic period and Post-Socratic period was the landmark of significance in the history, as the role of Confucius in China. His successors Plato and Aristotle, like Mencius and Dong Zhong Shu( famous ancient Chinese philosophers), also played the roles of history teachers at different times. The other one is Marx. I think Marx and Confucius are quite idealistic, because they wanted to build an ideal social order and their doctrine had a tremendous impact on China’s society and people. Of course, the status of Confucius is too special, so I have to use two characters to show him. Thus, my these paintings begin with Confucius-Socrates and end with Marx-Confucius. There are literary giants, such as Cao Xue Qin and Shakespeare, similar to their historical positions, similar to their literary achievements, they all impacted  enormously on the following generations.)

   第三,我力求表现出历史感和悲剧性。我所表现的人物都是在照相机没有进入中国之前的思想、文化大家,他们都没有留下过真实的影像。而与之对应的西方人,要么是古代雕像,要么是油画肖像,要么是照片,总之力求还原。为了这种历史的沧桑感,我选择了黑白,或近似黑白的有时间痕迹的泛黄色调,画这种人物如果画不出历史感,等于失败 一半。这种历史的沧桑感,是通过具体的笔触,肌理和一气呵成的整体画面效果来呈现。历史总是以悲剧收场,因为时代的悲天悯人,使历史变得异常厚重,但同时给人以希望。这些人物,总是有能力把个人的命运,扩展成国家、民族的命运,以自己的悲剧人生,不自觉的成为一个历史的、悲剧的弄潮儿。对这种悲剧性,我不知道我有多少能力去表现他们,大家看到,我只能表现到现在这个样子。     
(Third, I try to demonstrate a sense of history and tragedy. I had shown people the ideological and cultural maters who were not in the camera, before which entering into China, so the masters had not left the true images. The corresponding Westerners, such as ancient statues, painting portraits and photographs, short seeks to restore themselves. To this tremendous sense of history, I chose the black and white, or nearly black and white colors which have the time traces of yellow. Paint these figures, if without a sense of history painting, is equal to half the failure. The vicissitudes of this historical sense is presented by specific strokes, texture and coherent overall picture. History always ended with tragedy, because the compassion of the era makes history abnormally heavy, but hopeful at the same time. These people always have the ability to own their destinies, expending into the fate of the country and the nation. They unconsciously became the pioneers of the tragedy history. For this tragic, I do not know how much the ability to show them, I can only show like this now.)

   第四,人物不能太像。如果把人物画的太像某个人,感觉就是某某某的头简单的安在中国人身上,就等于失败了另一半。上面说过,就算抛开这种嫁接,她也要是一张好画,孔子就是孔子,杜甫就是杜甫,他们就是长得这个模样。这就要求,人物要画的似与不似,在稍一琢磨后,发现玄机。这,同样需要用绘画技巧来完成。   
                             
   我用以上四点纯绘画方面的因素,来表现和抗衡我的主题。这很有意思,本来内容是为我的画面服务的,但由于主题本身过于强大,使我不得不用加强绘画性的方式,来抵消和抗衡内容的强大,从而在形式和内容上取得一种平衡。或许我思考的主题过于宏大,超出了绘画的能力,但这恰恰是我想要的。用纯绘画的形式,对这些问题进行思考,如我上面提到的,进行“文化的绘画性思考”,难道没有必要吗!
(Fourth, the characters can not be too similar. If the figure is too much like a person, people will feel that it likes the grafting of the foreign figures’ heads and the Chinese figures’ bodies. That means the other half-failure. As mentioned above, firstly, it must be a good painting---Confucius is Confucius, Du Fu is Du Fu( an ancient Chinese poet), this is what they are. You will find the mystery of their similarites and differences in my paintings, which also needs the painting technique of the artists.

I used the four above points of pure painting to show and counter my theme.This is very interesting.My original thought is: the theme is to serve for my painting pictures. But actually, the theme is much stronger than my painting pictures. Thus, I had to strengthen my painting pictures to couter the strong theme, and fortunately I achieved a balance. Maybe the theme which I thought was too profound and beyond my capacity of painting, but this is exactly what I expected. So I use the form of pure painting to think these issues, as I mentioned above, the “ Painting Thinking of Culture”, isn’t it necessary!)
 

(文:王笑今/摄影:/责任编辑:上上国际美术馆)
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